Saturday, August 22, 2020

Environmental Sustainability Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Natural Sustainability - Essay Example Manageability implies utilizing, creating and ensuring assets at a rate and in a way that empowers individuals to meet their present needs and furthermore gives that people in the future can meet their own needs.( When the part of Environmental Sustainability comes into the image, various tree huggers have given various arrangements of causes, effect, and impacts, that have contributed and prompted ecological corruption. Various earthy people have been examining different reasons for the debasement and the significant three of them are talked about here. Right off the bat, the idea of development of populace is one of the principle parts of the different ideas set forth by researchers and tree huggers. It is to a great extent felt that development in total populace has prompted the more noteworthy requests for assets and has additionally been making an ever increasing number of requests for work, social administrations, instruction, more prominent political and financial viability.

Wednesday, July 15, 2020

Expectation Management The Secret to Happy Customers and Rapid Growth

Expectation Management The Secret  to  Happy Customers and Rapid Growth Customers are the most important part of any business. It does not matter how good your products are or how revolutionary your business model is, if you cannot attract and retain customers, you are not in business.Because of this, keeping your customers happy is non-negotiable. As a business owner, you have to do everything you can to delight your customers.Happy customers will not only keep coming back, they are also your best source of advertisement.According to the  White House Office of Consumer Affairs, happy, loyal customers are worth  up to 10 times the value of their first purchase.Happy customers will  also  recommend your products and services to their friends and family, which is the best form of advertisement for any business (benefits of word of mouth advertisement).Unsatisfied customers, on the other hand, will not only take business to one of your competitors, they will also tell their friends about their bad experience with your business.According to the  US Small Bus iness Administration, 68% of customers leave brands because they are not happy with the treatment they have received. A  survey by the Harvard Business Review  also found that 48% of dissatisfied customers will tell more than 10 people about their negative experience with a brand.From the above statistics, it is evident that businesses that want to survive and thrive need to place a lot of emphasis on keeping their customers happy.But what does it take to keep customers happy?One of the best ways of ensuring happiness, not only in business, but in life, is to manage expectations.According to the words of neuroscientist and author  Robb Rutledge, happiness depends not on how well things are going in reality, but rather on how they are going in relation to a person’s expectation.Think about a few situations where you were happy or frustrated. In most cases, you will realize that your happiness stemmed from things going as you expected or better than you expected, while your frustrat ion probably mostly likely resulted from things not going as you expected.For instance, if you did a test expecting to fail but you did just okay, you would be delighted.On the other hand, if you did the same test expecting an excellent performance and you did just okay, you would be frustrated. In the two situations, the reality did not change. Your feelings were determined by expectations rather than reality.With this in mind, you can now see why managing customer expectations is an important part of keeping your customers happy and getting numerous referrals.Unfortunately, managing customer expectations can be a challenging task due to the fact that customers often come to you with wildly different assumptions about how their interaction with your business should  work.Before we look at how to manage customer expectations, it is good to understand where these expectations come from in the first place.FACTORS THAT SHAPE CUSTOMER EXPECTATIONSCustomer expectations are the set of thi ngs, actions and behaviors that customers expect will and will not, or should and should not happen during their interaction with your company.Customer expectations are influenced by a number of factors, which include:Your Communication  to  CustomersWhat you communicate to customers, as well as how you communicate it has a direct influence of what customers will come to expect of your business.If you tell your customers that your business provides fast service, they will of course expect nothing else but fast service. If you tell them that you offer  one month free  trials, that  is what they will expect.If you are unable to offer what you promised, it is inevitable that your customers will not be happy with your company.Because of this, it is important to ensure that all communication that comes from your company is accurate and truthful.How you talk to your customers and the channels you choose for communication also influence customer expectations.Through your company’s  tone of voice, customer’s will get an idea of your business’ values and identity, which will  in turn affect what they come to expect of your business.The same applies for the channels you choose for communication.For instance, if most of your communication is done on digital platforms, they might also expect other interactions with your business, such as buying or making payments, to be done on digital platforms.Past Experience  With  Your CompanyThis is another factor that has a huge influence on what customers expect of your business.If a customer did business with you before and was delighted by the experience, they will expect the same kind of delightful experience.Any deviation from that will result in a negative experience.Feedback  From  Other CustomersToday, there is no shortage of ways through which customers can share about their experience with a brand.In addition, a lot of  shoppers today check a brand’s reviews online  before doing business with the brand.Whatever for mer customers are saying about their experience with your company will greatly influence what new customers expect of your company.If previous  customers received high-quality service from your business, new customers will expect the same level of service.Anything less than that will lead to a negative experience, which is why businesses should ensure that their level of service is consistent.Experience  With  Your CompetitorsYour competitors also have an influence on what customers expect of your company.If other businesses in the industry have a certain level of performance, customers will expect you to match or exceed this performance.If you cannot, you will have a hard time winning business over from your competitors.For instance,  if all your competitors are providing free one month trials of their service, customers will expect the same from you.Customer Needs  and  PreferencesCustomers’ own needs and preferences also influence what they expect of your company.For instance, millennials are used to doing everything on the internet, and they may prefer shopping online and making their payments online.When doing business with you, they will expect you to allow them to shop and make payments online, and may abandon your company if  it does not allow them to  do that.Country/RegionCustomer expectations may also vary based on their geographic location and their culture.For instance, in some countries and cultures,  customers may not be comfortable with customer service reps who are too friendly, and will expect the customer service reps to be business-like at all times.In other countries, customers may prefer customer service reps who are friendly and cheery and will expect them to behave as such.If your business has operations across different regions, it is important to figure out what unique expectations customers in each region have.The above are just some of the reasons that may shape customer expectations.With such diverse factors, managing customer ex pectations is not such a straightforward affair. However, there are a number of actions you can take to manage customer expectations and therefore keep them happy and satisfied. These include: CREATE THE PLAYBOOKThe factors that influence customer expectations are wildly diverse, and some of them are not even within your control.This often leads to equally diverse customer expectations. When each  customer has their own expectations, keeping all customers happy becomes a pipe dream.To avoid this, your best option  is to  be proactive and  create the playbook â€" instead of leaving customer expectations to chance, come up with a reasonable set of expectations that you want your customers to have and then determine what your company needs to do at each customer touch point in order to shape these expectations.To create the customer expectations playbook, you first need to map out your  customers’ journey  as they interact with your brand.Once you are aware of every interaction a cus tomer has with your brand, determine what expectations you want the customer to have at each point, and then articulate what your staff need to do in order to make sure these expectations are met.MAKE SURE ALL YOUR COMMUNICATION IS CLEAR AND HONESTWe mentioned earlier that what you communicate to customers has a great influence on the expectation they have about your company.To avoid passing the wrong message, make sure that all  your communication is clear and honest, and that it leaves no room for misinterpretation.Go through all your communication channels and check the kind of message they convey, both directly and indirectly.Make sure the information on your website is correct and up-to-date.Check your social media profiles and make sure any offers and promotions have clearly defined requirements and expiration dates, and that all these offers are honored.Regularly review the FAQs section on your website, make sure that the information is accurate and detailed and update any ne w questions that customers might be asking. Make sure all that your print materials are regularly updated with new information.The idea here is to make sure that none of your communication leaves room for misinterpretation, which can lead to unrealistic expectations.MAKE REALISTIC PROMISESSales can sometimes be a tough job, and in a bid to appease clients and make the sale, your sales reps might decide to bend the truth a little bit.For instance,  a  sales rep  might tell the client that their order will be delivered earlier than the standard time, or that some new features will be added to a product/service even when there are no plans for new features.While bending the truth this way might get them the sale, the problem is that these promises will result in expectations that your company will not be able to meet.Once you are unable to keep these promises, the result will be a damaged reputation, a lost customer, and probably some negative reviews on your website or social media pr ofiles.To avoid  such scenarios,  you should teach your sales and marketing staff to make promises that the company can actually deliver on.In as much as it is a good thing for your staff to be eager to  make your products and services sound appealing to clients, the information they share with clients should be truthful. Any promises they make to the customer should be realistic.UNDERPROMISE AND OVERDELIVERThis is closely related to the previous point. Instead of making unrealistic promises that you cannot keep, you should make modest promises and then deliver way more than you promised. Exceeding your clients’ expectations makes them delighted because they feel like they are getting even more than they  paid  for.For instance, if a client asks you to build a website for them and you know that it will take you about four weeks to have the website ready, tell them that it will take you six weeks.When you then go ahead and deliver the website in four weeks, the client will be delig hted, because they can now launch their business even earlier. Delivering it earlier will make them feel like you put in some extra effort into their project at no extra cost.BE TRANSPARENTBeing transparent is another great way of managing customer expectations.Transparency builds trust and makes it clear what your customers can realistically expect from your company. To maintain transparency, make sure customers are aware of your company’s policies, values, practices, and your way of doing business.You can do this by sharing the policies, values and practices on your company’s website, print material, social media pages, and so on. When interacting and transacting with employees, your employees should also explain to customers how  their  requests will be handled and why.When customers are well aware of what is going on, they know what to expect and are more likely to be satisfied with your way of doing things.BE CLEAR ON GOALS, STRATEGY, TIMELINES AND BUDGETWhen you get into b usiness with a client, even if you don’t discuss it, they will have their own idea of how they think things will be done, what they will get out of the transaction, how long they think the project will take and how much they think it will cost.Very often, their perception of all these things will be very different from the reality. To avoid disappointment once the project is complete, it is best to discuss these things beforehand and make it clear to the client what they should expect.Have a detailed discussion with the client and come up with a scope of work document that outlines what the goals of the project are, the deliverables that the client expects, the strategy and methodology you will use to achieve these goals, the project timelines and the budget.Sometimes, things may go beyond what was detailed in the scope of work document, and that is fine as long as you communicate to the client in time. If you realize that a project is going to take longer than expected, let the c lient know immediately, and explain the reason behind the  delay.Clients understand that errors and glitches do come up, and they won’t have a problem waiting a few extra days, provided you notify them in time.Similarly, if you realize that the project will exceed the set budget, let the client know immediately and explain the reason behind extra cost.BE CONSISTENTConsistency is a very important value in business. If a client has a great experience their first time doing business with your company, they will expect the same kind of experience the second, third,  and fourth times they do business with you.If their experience deviates from what they are used to, it will leave them feeling confused and will break any trust they had in your business. To avoid this, it is important to ensure that your service remains consistent. If you decide to change things, you should only change them for better.Consistency is not only important for returning customer; it also works for new customer s.Nowadays, before buying from a company, customers will check online to see what previous customers are saying about your company.If the reviews from previous customers have a level of consistency, the customer will gain some trust in your company and proceed to do business with you.If, on the other hand, different customers have varying feedback about their experience doing business with you, a customer won’t know what to expect from your company, and there is a high chance they will not do business with you.Customers will also check whether  their own experience is consistent with  what others are saying about your company,  so do as much as you possibly can to ensure you are delivering a consistent experience.Finally, you should also make sure that your brand’s tone, voice and message is consistent across all your communication channels and media. The point here is that you need to  ensure consistency across all areas of your business.MONITOR YOUR CHANNELSIn order to manage customer expectations, it is important to first understand what the current expectations are and whether they are realistic or not. Only then can you work on either meeting these expectations or helping customers develop more realistic expectations.To understand what your customers expect of your business, you need to monitor all your  feedback  channels â€" social media, live chat, email, phone, reviews on your website, and so on.This will give you an idea of what customers think of your company and their major sources of disappointment (remember, disappointment stems from unmet  expectations).For instance, if you  sell  luxury honeymoon packages, some customers might assume it means they will be picked from the airport in a limo.If this is not part of their package, they might voice their disappointment on your social media profiles, giving you the clue that they expect a limo to be  part of the package.Once you understand their expectations, you can then either add a limo pick up service to your package or make your message more clear so that customers stop expecting something you don’t offer.MONITOR YOUR COMPETITIONI also mentioned that customer expectations may be influenced by the customers’ experiences with your competitors.For instance, a customer might ask you why you don’t offer something that one of your competitors offers.This is a signal that the customer’s expectation has been influenced by the competitor, even if the customer has never done business with the competitor.Therefore, it is important to monitor what your competitors are doing and see how their services might be influencing your customers’ expectations.Go through your competitors’ websites and look at what their customers are saying on their social media pages to get an idea of some of your competitors’ practices/services that might be influencing your own customers’ expectations.In addition, you should subscribe to industry magazines and blogs to keep yourself abreast on what the best companies in your industry are doing.This will help you understand what your customers expect from you and make it easier for you to meet these expectations.LOOK FOR OPPORTUNITIES TO WOW CUSTOMERSFinally,  if you want to keep your customers happy and loyal to your company, you should be constantly be on the lookout for opportunities to ‘wow’ you customers, situations where you can go the extra mile for your customers.Of course, it is not possible to do this every time, but whenever possible, do something that is beyond your scope.For instance, if a customer comes to you with the aim to purchase a certain product or service from you, but then you realize that the product or service might not be the best for them, instead of selling to them all the same, you can give them advice on which product or service would serve them best, even if it results in a smaller margin for you.This will show the client that you actually care about them and they will be more satisfi ed with your service and more likely to turn into a loyal client.WRAPPING UPThe secret to keeping your customers happy is to properly manage their expectations.When your customers have realistic expectations of your business, you will be able to meet and exceed these expectations, which will in turn delight your customers.Customer expectations are shaped by various factors, which can make managing these expectations something of a challenge.However, the tips shared in this article will help you shape your customers’  expectations and keep them realistic, which will in turn make it easier for you to keep your customers happy.

Thursday, May 21, 2020

What The Core Curriculum Is And What Is It - 858 Words

First let’s define what the Core Curriculum is and what is contains. The standards demonstrate what students are expected to learn at each grade level, so that the parents and the teachers can understand and support their learning. On the standers are very clearly stated and they are: research and evidence based, clear, understandable, and consistent, aligned with college and career expectations, based on hard content and the application of knowledge through higher-order thinking skills, built upon the strengths and lessons of current state standards, and lastly informed by other top-performing countries to prepare all students for success in our global economy and society. The standards concentrates on core ideas and procedures starting in the early grades. This way it gives the teachers the time they need to teach and gives students the time need to master those concepts (Common Core State Standards Initiative). I am volunteering in a 2nd grade classroom rig ht now and I do observe multicultural notions in the classroom and I am learning to keep what I see and apply it in the future. For example we just had a holiday and it was the Columbus Day, I think including that in the classroom will be an example of multicultural lesson. Reading books and having a discussion with the students about will help them really understand the history behind this day. The teacher that I am helping right now had a deep discussion with her students about this day. They read aShow MoreRelatedThe Common Core Standards And A National Assessment System1154 Words   |  5 PagesThe common core standards were designed to establish a national curriculum and a national assessment system, where students across the nation have the same expectations and learning outcomes (Noll, 2014). There has been heated debate over whether these standards will improve education. Some say the standards will increase rigor and consistency, while others say that they lack flexibility in favor of continuity (Noll, 2014). Some say common core will more consistently prepare learners for collegeRead MoreArgumentative Essay On Common Core1131 Words   |  5 Pages  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Mr. Scheiner English Period #4   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   11/21/13 Argumentative Essay on Common Core â€Å"Without Common Core we (America) are not where we want or need to be.† The New York Times reported this in August, 2013. Currently, every state sets its own curriculum for its schools. The result is that the United States ranks â€Å"25th in math, 17th in science, and 14th in reading compared to students in 27 industrialized countriesRead MoreCommon Core Curriculum Negatively Affects Students1121 Words   |  5 Pages the Common Core Curriculum has become the driving force in American students education. Adapted in 2010 through the No Child Left Behind Act, it began with vigorous testing that failed to raise educational performance. In order to improve the act, the federal government then created an entire standard based curriculum. This educational initiative became further known as Common Core, which is currently being implemented in every public school across America. Common Core details what kindergartenersRead MoreBenefits Of A Core Curriculum947 Words   |  4 PagesWisconsin Lutheran College is required to take the classes on the core curriculum. The core curriculum consists of common courses, theology courses, humanities courses, social sciences courses, science and mathematics courses, a physical education course, and three units of foreign language. There are advantages and disadvantages of having required core classes. A few advantages of a core curriculum are getting to explore what different majors have to offer as well as having a knowledge in differentRead MoreCommon Core Standards : A Standard Or A Type Of Curriculum?1713 Words   |  7 PagesWhat is Common Core? Is it a standard or a type of Curriculum? According to, common core is a set of high-quality academic standards in mathematics and English language arts/literacy (ELA). These learning goals outline what a student should know and be able to do at the end of each grade. The standards were created to ensure that all students graduate from high schoo l with the skills and knowledge necessary to succeed in college, career, and life, regardless of where they liveRead MoreEssay on Common Core State Standards and Its Impact on Curriculum 1641 Words   |  7 PagesCommon Core State Standards and Its Impact on Curriculum Introduction Common Core State Standards (CCSS) is a voluntary state led initiative that looks to establish clear expectations for learning in grades kindergarten through twelfth that are standard from state to state. The purpose of the standards is to make certain that there is uniformity in student proficiency and high school graduates have the know-how and ability needed for college and a competitive workforce in the twenty-first centuryRead MoreStandardized Testing1163 Words   |  5 PagesCommon Core state standards, standardized tests have adapted to align to these standards. However, the tools teachers must use to prepare students for them have not. Another issue with standardized testing is that curriculum is poorly aligned to the tested standards. When Common Core was adopted, a new generation of standardized tests were developed. The Secretary of Education during this time of adoption, Arne Duncan, stated that this would â€Å"help drive the development of a rich curriculum, instructi onRead MoreThe On The Foundations Of Education940 Words   |  4 Pageswith very valid views; such as descriptions, points, pros and cons within each branch, as well as sub-branches. I shall be discussing my opinions on based on the questions given that are responsive to the matter of equality in education and hidden curriculum. Question one distinctively asks about which philosophy is best befitting for student diversity, as in bilingual and multicultural education. To be frank, my first consideration to this question was the concept of critical thinking, categorizedRead MoreCommon Core Should Be Enforced Across The United States1523 Words   |  7 Pageswhether the Common Core should be enforced across the United States. One of the most wildly accepted views is that even though the Common Core could be a good idea, it is unnecessary, that America has done just fine without it. The Common Core is not working how it should and schools should go back to the way it was before. Many professors and researchers agree that the Common Core does not work and might even be hurting the youth of America. Parents who disagree with the Common Core have started pullingRead MoreAnalysis Of Frankenstein And The Clock, After Dinner Time Parents Sit Down With Their Children 1653 Words   |  7 Pagesthey were confuse ho w to do the assignment. Instead of doing traditional math kids are drawing pictures and diagrams explaining how to add and subtract this is the new debate about the Common Core curriculum and parents is upset about the topic. â€Å"How can we teach our students something without even knowing what it is?† This remind me of a sense from the movie Frankenstein (1931) where Dr. Henry Frankenstein creates a new creature, and once the local village heard about a foul experiment, they rush

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Perceiving Dogs Equal Vs. Property - 1589 Words

Perceiving Dogs Equal vs. Property In general, dogs are associated with loyalty, companionship, and aid. In Pam Houston’s â€Å"A Blizzard Under Blue Sky,† the narrator attempts to treat her depression through experiencing the adventure of spending a night outside in the cold weather of Utah. Then, the narrator becomes successful in her adventure with the support and assistance of her two dogs, Hailey and Jackson. On the contrary, in Jack London’s â€Å"To Build a Fire,† a â€Å"man† is traveling along the Yukon Trail, on his way to his group of friends where he encounters a dog who grows to have a poor relationship with the man but remains with him until his death. The similarities and differences between the two relationships make a comment on interactions between humans and animals. The comparison of these two short stories demonstrates how dogs are only beneficial to humans when they are deemed an equal and a counterpart, however not as valuable when disrespected through regard as one’s property. The narrator of â€Å"A Blizzard Under Blue Sky† exemplifies the components of a relationship between a dog and an individual that produces mutual benefit. The essential piece is equality, which is expressed in both the actions the narrator takes toward the dogs as well as the dialogue between the three characters: Jackson, Hailey, and the narrator. The existence of dialogue between them alone reveals equality because dialogue in general is exclusive between two human characters but in thisShow MoreRelatedPerceiving Dogs Equal Vs Inferior. Inferior1648 Words   |  7 PagesPerceiving Dogs Equal vs. Inferior In general, dogs are associated with loyalty, companionship, and aid. 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The use of any trademark in this text does not vest in the author or publisher any trademark ownership rights in such trademarks, nor does the use of such trademarks imply any affiliation with or endorsement of this book

African American Leadership Two Voices, One Vision Free Essays

Booker T. Washington and W. E. We will write a custom essay sample on African American Leadership: Two Voices, One Vision or any similar topic only for you Order Now B. Du Bois, two distinct figures, whom both found the latter part of the 1800’s, in need of leadership from within a segmented group of American Society were placed in odds over a single issue†¦successful racial â€Å"up lift† for the African American population. As in any case when the attention of the masses is at stake, the titanic collision of honed minds was inevitable. The two men, sought to position their respective plans as the predominate solution to solve racial inequality and achieve racial uplift for population of former slaves and born free citizens in the United States. Booker T. Washington, born into slavery, 1856, for the first nine years of his life, held that the black community must exercise patience. Any abrupt aggressive action by African Americans would be interpreted as threatening by the Caucasian majority therefore inviting justifiable increased discrimination against blacks. Washington’s philosophy put forth the notion that blacks should be willing to sacrifice social and political equality, in exchange for economic liberty. The path to â€Å"up lifting† would be achieved through fidelity, being trusty worthy and industrial. Born free in 1868, W. E. B. Du Bois was the product of a respectable family that held position in the community of Great Barrington, Massachusetts. Du Bois believed the top ten percent or as he dubbed it â€Å"the talented tenth† of the African American population should focus all their energy on higher education. The African American intellectuals would then lead the masses to a higher social rung. Protest, challenge, provocation were the watch words for Du Bois’ method. He clearly felt immediate political, social and racial equality was warranted. As stated by Jacqueline M. Moore, author and educator, Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, and the Struggle for Racial Uplift, â€Å"the debate recognized that there were more than two methods of racial uplift† (Moore, p. 89) Washington’s views, was somewhat misconstrued to believe he was â€Å"selling out† to the majority of American Society. While he felt that African Americans should not push themselves into unwelcome arenas, he knew that political accomplishments were short lived and whimsical. His confidence was in the economical and financial gains that were long term and wielded tangible influence. Washington was clever enough to quietly lobby majority law makers and civic organizations in behind scene efforts to garner support for African American enfranchisement. Even more astute by Washington was his ability to fund his educational agenda from wealthy financial supporters. Du Bois took the position that Caucasian America should be held at an arms distance, neither rejecting nor embracing. He felt the way to eliminate tension between the races was to create a synergy between being African Americans and the rest of America by utilizing the talents of the so called â€Å"Talented Tenth† to spearhead the struggle for national racial equality. Thru Du bois’ multiple initiatives to further promote his cause, â€Å"encouraging action and open protest to challenge racism and discrimination† (Moore, p. 78) were standard in his approach. Washington was convinced through hard work and the financial success of entrepreneurial enterprises, respect and equality would be gained for African Americans and â€Å"up lifting† of the race would be a natural evolutionary process. Clearly because of his experiences as a former slave, Washington’s philosophy was shaped by determination and work ethic. Educated at Hampton Institute, a vocational institution, described as â€Å"progressive, training people for skilled work. † (Moore, 21), was the capstone of Washington’s desire to continue educating African Americans in skilled trades. In direct opposition to Washington’s vision of an industrial educated populace that would improve thru commerce, Du Bois’ selected â€Å"Talented Tenth† would â€Å"help others to fight for the rights for the race†(Moore, 62) with their knowledge of modern society. This type of comparison epitomizes the differences of the two visionaries, however Washington’s approach is accurate as well as brilliant, â€Å"Under the guise of maintaining the social hierarchy, [he] was able to create a strong, independent, black-run institution† (Moore, 28). While outwardly going along with the status quo, Washington tacitly used his economic prowess to build a tangible independent entity capable of choosing its own destiny and purpose. All the while Du Bois relied solely on rhetoric and the intellectual elite to build his constituency to improve the status of African Americans. Judging from racial attitudes in seemly integrated Great Barrington, Massachusetts, Du Bois was denied community sponsored scholarship to Harvard University. Further acknowledgement of the less than ideal racial setting, Du Bois attended integrated schools, â€Å"adult blacks and whites did not mingle socially,†(Moore, 39). Historically African American college Fisk University did offer him a scholarship. Author Jacqueline M. Moore was injudicious in her conclusion, â€Å"he (Washington) was the only one capable of negotiating with both the white North and the white South and that outspoken protest would simply make matters worse† (Moore, 68). Mistaking his silence for weakness overlooks effective lobbying in politics and underlying influence in advancing the African American race. Du Bois’ stance towards racial equality is the central criticism of Washington. Du Bois felt that Washington was allowing Caucasian America â€Å"off the hook† of responsibility. While they both agreed institutional segregation had to end, Du bois felt strongly that African Americans were owed assistance from the general society. â€Å"Solving the race problem required everyone’s involvement (Moore, 72). † Washington chose self â€Å"up lift† from the collective boot straps. Clearly Washington’s experience as an ex-slave impacted his work ethic and decision making process and shaped his views of how African Americans should advance the struggle for equality. Comparatively Du Bois argued that Washington was subservient toward the majority rule and racial discrimination. Racial discrimination and violence was at an all time high, however Du Bois’ model for protest, higher education, and a demand for immediate social and political equality was hollow without effective means. The establishment of several civic and social organizations by Du Bois could only voice outrage and indignation. There was no real force behind the effort to motivate people to change on both sides of the racial divide. Washington was widely accused of pandering and compromising by contemporaries as well as scholars of today. What is clearly overlooked is Washington uncanny foresight of recognizing the importance of financial and economic gains over social gains, â€Å"Blacks would agree not to push for social and political equality if whites would agree not to exclude them from economic progress† (Moore, 33). This statement alone underscores his ability to correctly comprehend what drives a capitalistic society, even in the early 1900’s, and to predict the necessary tool for the future is clearly defined as economic progress. Another popular misconception was that Washington focused on presenting African Americans as well dressed, polite educated puppets that could â€Å"discuss† the plight of their people with out offending the listening audience. The message would be a softer, more acceptable presentation for the gentile surrounding. While that may have been an actual tactic used by Washington, it was only a well thought maneuver to fund his educational institution, Tuskegee Institute, by well heeled benefactors. He now favored influence as well as philanthropic support that would educate the next generation of resourceful, independent entrepreneurs. If his vision had been realized, financially successful enterprises started in 1900’s possibly could have survived today or subsidiaries that would be in existence to hire the today’s African American professionals at all levels. Once could only imagine the business knowledge gained and economic success of competitive entities started during the industrial age. Washington may have sacrificed some short lived dignity, but he realized that un-restrain economic growth is tangible and sustains while intellectual accomplishments does not protect or shelter. In the final analysis, the examination of how Du Bois and Washington sought out a collective political, social and economical agenda in the midst of national racial turmoil during the turn of the century is an interesting analogy of today’s civil rights leadership agenda. Washington’s method was clearly the most beneficial for the improvement of African Americans for then as well as today. Promoting economic success was the most fundamental element in the struggle for racial uplift. Understanding and able to recognize the changing economic conditions would allow the national objective of racial equality to be the sole issue versus both combined as they are today. As an active participant in the industrial revolution, Washington recognized success as access to business opportunities with a foundation in industrial education. Compared to modern day choices, ground floor Internet opportunity or NAACP internship? Washington’s was option was clearly the proper path, noted by the number of successful African American business that flourished during segregation, i. e. Johnson Publishing, A. G. Gaston Insurance, Motown, etc compared full to racial integration era business successes they remain in African American control. Even though African Americans had limited political power and remained segregated socially, pure economic growth would have accelerated true racial uplift and the issue of economical inequality would have been an issue of the past. Booker T. Washington, W. E. B. Du Bois, and the Struggle for Racial Uplift, Jacqueline M. Moore â€Å"Wilmington , Delaware : Scholarly Resources, 2003. How to cite African American Leadership: Two Voices, One Vision, Essays

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Willey Russells play, Our Day Out Essay Example For Students

Willey Russells play, Our Day Out Essay In Willey Russells play, Our Day Out the deprivd youth of inner city Liverpool are treated to an exciting day out to Wales. They are so poor they cannot aford a proper breakfast or even school uniform. Four teachers r responsible for them. First there is the kind, gentle and understanding Mrs. Kay, described as a mother hen. Mr Briggs, the strict disciplinerian is sent to watch over the trip. The young teachers and lovers Susan and Colin do not play a larg part, but add humour to the play. But, after an incident at the beach, both Mrs. Kay and Mr. Briggs change. We will write a custom essay on Willey Russells play, Our Day Out specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now The playright makes it clear that different teaching methods and ideas clearly suit different classes, and that one of the teachers is clearly better at teaching the Progress Class. This is because of the way they treat the children and their understanging of the childrens situation. This is shown by the way the playwright uses the visits to the zoo, castle, fairground and beach, especially Briggs and Carols encounter on the clifftop, which changes his view of her and her inner-city neighbors. Mrs. Kay is the teacher all the children love. At the begginning of the play she is surounded by them: One group of kids surrounds a teacher, Mrs. Kay. She is kind and caring towards the children because she understands their problems and feels sorry for them. She calls them love. Even when Briggs is angry, she still smiles, and although she is civil towards him it is clear she disagrese with his harsh and impolite behaviour. She has to be polite towards him because he is intent upon getting her sacked: When we get back to schoolà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦your number up. She is slightly ironic and sarcastic as well, as she calls him Mr Happiness. This is funny because he is clearly a very grumpy and disagreeable character, one of the reasons he is not a good teacher for the Progress Class. Mrs. Kay knows the area the children live in, one of the roughest around, and teaches the very worst of them, the Progress Class, so called because they cannot read or write properly: Y go down there à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ if y backward like. Therefore she tries not to stub their hopes: Well you could try, couldnt you, love? She knows they will probably not get the qualifications they need to get a good job, and will end up as factory fodder. Their school is poorly funded as they are unpopular with parents and attract fewer pupils than most other schools. They are unlikely to get a job at all, as all the factories are closing down, as well as the docks. She tries to make their lessons fun because their lives at home are so bad. Some of the childrens mothers are prostitutes: all the fellers she picks up on Parlyà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦them Blacks pay a fortune for a bit of White. Others beat them because they will not share their cigarettes: but when me dad comes home, sir, sir, he belts meà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ because I wont give him one. They must be so poor that their parents cannot afford to buy cigarettes, and somehow Andrews has some. Perhaps he has taken to stealing them. For these reasons she tries to make the lessons more fun so that they want to learn, and although she cannot control them, they all love her so much they wouldnt want to cause any trouble. When they are told off by her they learn from it because she explains why it is wrong: lets have no silly squabbling or doing anything that might be dangerous. Her only rules are to think of other people too. This means that they do learn to read and write, and they carry on to examination classes: Now you can read and write youre back in normal classes. If they get that far maybe they will have a future. This is Mrs. Kays reason for teaching them. She tries to act like a mother to them, because a lot of them have never had someone to cuddle up to who loved them. Andrews mother is too busy selling her body to keep the family going, and his father beats him. She is warm and personal, she tries to get them to call her Helen, and they end up chanting it. She even breaks rules so that the children can enjoy themselves, by letting Digga and Reilly come, even though they arent in the Progress Class: You know Id take you. But its not up to meà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦youll have to get Briggs permission. She wants them to enjoy themselves as well. She persuades the coach driver not to search them for lemonade because lemonade never touches their lips. Her little speech is so effective the coach driver sends a kid to get sweets for them all. She lies for them, and trusts them to keep their lemonade and chocolate out of the drivers view. When she tries to discipline them, it doesnt really work, and the kids know this: Andrews Im gonna tell missà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦Digga gon tell her. She wont do nottn anyway. She is a soft teacher. The children would rather tell Mrs. Kay because Mr. Briggs is too strict. Mrs. Kay does not tell them off for smoking, because she knows how hard things are and she smokes herself: Mrs. Kay sits at a table à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ she lights a cigarette. At the beach Mrs. Kay has fun and plays with them, but is a very irresponsible because she loses Carol. This is the only really bad point about her character. When things go wrong it is her fault. This is one of the reasons Briggs is so different; everything he does is perfectly scheduled and timed. The main reason Mrs. Kay is a good teacher is because she makes their lessons fun and they want to learn. The way she teaches them, by example not punishment makes them want to please her, by learning well. She is experienced at teaching their level. She understands their problems and just how awful their lives at home are. She is a little ray of sunshine in their lives. After the events on the cliff she gets herself together, organises the group and becomes much more responsible: At the moment Id say the most important thing is to find the girl à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ Susan, you keep these lads playing football. Well split up and look for her. She becomes the leader, directing the others, and it turns out she is a good leader. .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 , .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .postImageUrl , .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 , .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853:hover , .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853:visited , .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853:active { border:0!important; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853:active , .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853 .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u04b14d8f4694ab62f6144fd3815ec853:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The impact of the inspector's final EssayBy being impulsive and splitting them up, she is found. She also stops the alarm being raised among the kids by leaving Susan to keep them busy. All Briggs can do is to criticise them and be negative: All I can say is its a wonder you havent lost a dozen of themà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦when we get back to school, your numbers up. Mr Briggs teaches the examination classes. The children he teaches are also from this deprived area, but are not so demanding. His strict teaching methods tend to work better with his classes because they have better manners. He tends to be much more strict and impersonal. It is not until he saves Carol from the cliff he realises just how bad it is. Mr Briggs is grumpy and bossy. Even when he is greeted cheerfully by Mrs Kay, he still replies begrudgingly. He likes order and is very keen on discipline. The children dislike him for the same reason they love Mrs Kay he is horrible and appears to hate them: You hate all the kids, but she is kind and loves them. To the children he seems boring and his idea of fun is very different to theirs, for example when they pass the old docks: Im often down hereà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦taking notes, photographs. He totally disapproves of the children getting sweets, as he wants it to be a educational trip: sweets! Mr Briggs obviously comes from a better-off area, and although he is gentlemanly he is quite snobbish towards them. He feels it is bad to cane a girl: be grateful youre not a lad but would not think twice about giving her an earful. On the cliff Carol says: Sir, sir, yknow if youd been my old feller, it woulda been all right. He knows they come from a bad area, but has no real idea of their lifestyle, and if he does he chooses to ignore it or he would feel guilty. He looks down on them, especially those in the Progress Class. He shows this when he lets Reilly off and punishes Andrews: All right, all right to Reilly and Get to the front! to Andrews. Andrews is still in the Progress Class, so he picks on him, even though he knows it was Reillys cigarette. He treats them like dirt, not even bothering to call them by their names or to be polite. To him they are there to be stuffed full of facts, so he gets paid. He does not realise that this will not work for the Progress Class and would be useless to teach them. As soon as he gets on the coach he shouts: Sit down now, come on, move . He thinks they are trouble just because of the class they are in: Theres a few of them I could sling off right now. He makes this judgement even though he has never taken them. Mr Briggs is used to the kids being cheeky and hating him, and expects it from all of them. You can imagine his surprise when some girls try to link arms with him and is not ready for this kind of chummy relationship: Oh! walk properly. Everything he does is negative, he tells them what they must NOT do: We do not shout at our matesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦We do not wander up and down the aisles. He dictates exactly what they must not do. Mrs Kay however, is positive all the time she believes that they will find Carol and tells them to make their own decisions whether something is wrong: think of others as well. The area the children live in is the roughest in Liverpool. There are no trees or playgrounds: the kids chopped em down an burnt them all. It is the kind of street where you would not leave your car at night. The parents of the children work in the factories or docks, me old man works down ere. They bring in very little money, they may also spend it on drugs or drink. There is none left for the children to get clothes: Carol rushes along the street wearing a school uniform which doubles as a street outfit and her Sunday best. Many do not get a proper breakfast: She is eating half a sandwich and clutching a supermarket carrier bag. They have not even heard of Wales, and do not know how to get there: Will we have t get a boat? Andrews mother has to be a prostitute to bring in some money: Shes always with them blacks off the boats, your ma. The children will probably never get a better job than their parents, because schools that attract less pupils get less money, as Mrs Kay points out: You wont teach them because youre in a job thats designed and funded to fail! Unlike Mr Briggs she realises a lot of things about them that he cannot accept. This helps her teach them in an appropriate way. She feels truly sorry for them and understands that they have no hope for a bright future. This is why she is so kind to them, so they have at least one happy memory of life and school. It is the only way to get through to them. The children are not affected by Briggs ranting, they have heard it all before. It does not affect them in any way. He does not understand their difficulties and wants to ignore them; he is just like society, not wanting to feel guilty about those worse off than themselves. This is highlighted when he says: Ill see that its the last you ever go on school trip. He doesnt realise that it probably will be anyway. When the children are at the zoo, they discuss the bear, and how it doesnt know any other life, without realising it also applies to them. Just as the bear is trapped in its pit the children are also captive. They know no other life, even where Wales is. When they are set free they go wild and steal the animals, just as a bear would kill. They would not know it was wrong as it was how they survived. I think the owners taking advantage of them by raising the prices justified the childrens actions in the CafÃÆ' ©: Well milk this little lot. They do not have any experience of this type of kid. At the zoo they steal the pets because they have never had anyone to cuddle up with or to love. This is Mrs Kays function to Carol on the coach. .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 , .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .postImageUrl , .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 , .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79:hover , .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79:visited , .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79:active { border:0!important; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79:active , .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79 .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u4f8c727f3db6a923d3bfed45da8ede79:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Baz Luhrmann releases his new 20th century adaptation of "Romeo and Juliet" EssayThe kids are fascinated by Briggs teaching about the animals, but bored by his speech at the castle. Mr Briggs will never trust them again after the event and Mrs Kay is upset because she also trusts them, but as they did not know it was wrong she could not be upset for long. Carol gets a pet at the fair: Handing a goldfishà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦to Carol. Mr Briggs main concern is to educate them, like his examination class field trips. Mrs Kay knows they cannot be educated and works to give them a fun day out. At the zoo Mr Briggs manages to teach them while letting them have fun, making him more li ke Mrs Kay, until they break his trust. At the beach he totally disowns and abandons them: I made it quite plain I was having nothing more to do with your outing. He is disgusted by the lack of discipline and control and is intent on finally getting Mrs Kay and the others fired: Dont worry, when we get back to school your numbers up, and hers. He is needed, however, when Carol goes missing. Mr Briggs is the one who finds Carol, having a moment of peace on the clifftop, but she behaves defiantly towards him. At this point Mrs Kay is worried about Carols welfare, but Mr Briggs worries about the rules and getting the others sacked. He does not know any other way to handle the situation but to be angry and fierce, and it doesnt work. He suddenly realises it will be his fault if she falls and tries to get her back by telling her off. She makes him realise how bad her life is and how she and other pupils feel about him. When he sees she is so desperate she is prepared to jump off the cliff, he gets some kind of idea of the plight they are in and encourages her to see that he doesnt really hate them and that she could do well if she tried really hard. He starts to care about her. He takes a bit of Mrs Kays persuasive nature and manages to get Carol to believe that if she has the will she can get free of her life. He also picks up Mrs Kays caring and affection when he hugs Carol. He has changed so much he takes them to the fair and has FUN. He sings with them on the coach: Briggs is also on the back seat cowboy hat on, tie pulled down and singing with them. It is like he has become another person altogether. Unfortunately, as soon as he sees the familiar surroundings he reverts to his old self: He sits up, puts his tie back to normal, goes to straighten his hair and feels the cowboy hat. He takes it off and puts it on Andrews. He then takes out a comb and combs his hair. He forgets his new feelings for the class, and the whole day has been a waste. I think it is very sad that he is ashamed of himself, and forgets how bad things are. It must be the city that reminded him. He is so ashamed he pulls open the film and exposes it to the light, crumples it up and puts it in his pocket. He doesnt even seem to notice Carol, which is even sadder after he has just saved her life. He is his old, pigheaded snobby self. I think the playwright has made it clear that both teachers have their own methods and attitudes to their classes, and are both good teachers, but that one teacher is clearly better at teaching the class involved: the Progress Class. He conveys this by the attitudes of the pupils and by the events in the play. Mrs Kay may not be a good teacher for the examination classes, but the playwright gives us little evidence for her experience with other classes, so I have assumed that the question applies to the class with them that day, the Progress Class. In the case of the Progress Class, Willy Russell makes it clear that Mr Briggs would be useless at teaching them, and that through experience Mrs Kay has figured out how to get the most effective teaching with them. She is the best teacher for them because she knows and understands them; she has a very clear idea of what their home lives are like, and sympathises with them. She is realistic but does not snub their hopes and dreams for the future, even though she knows they are unlikely. Briggs, however, chooses to blot out this part of their lives. The children in her classes like her, and because of this they are eager to please her by doing well. Briggs is hated and nobody cares what he thinks. They are happy to obey her. Although she is normally scatterbrained and unorganised, when it is necessary such as when Carol is missing, she assumes the role of leader and is very good at ordering the others, as well as not alarming the kids. Although organised all the time, Briggs has no fun side at all, and always uses rules rather than his judgement when making decisions. When he tells the kids off often and loudly, they are cheeky and usually disobey him anyway. They take pleasure in getting him wound up. When Mrs Kay has to tell them what to do, she gives them a reason, such as it could be dangerous. The kids see the logic and have a reason to stop it. She gives them an opportunity to choose right or wrong, and guides them. Mrs Kay is on their wavelength, and she never looks down on them, or judges them. Mr Briggs is planets away and looks down on them all, when he doesnt know them at all. She wants to make it better for them, and she cares and loves for them as if they were her own children. She is always positive and teaches them by example. Briggs is always negative and teaches by punishment. If Briggs were left in charge, there would be a riot. Willy Russell clearly shows Mrs Kay is better because her class learns faster and is dedicated to getting things right so they can impress her. There are also fewer disturbances in her class, as they do not want to miss out on the fun they have. Years of experience have meant her lessons are perfectly suited to their ability and special needs.